I mentioned in Findling & Siwiak 2012 measurements of an Alexloop issues with their efficiency calculation.
Above is an extract from (Findling & Siwiak 2012).
(Siwiak & Quick 2018) give an equivalent circuit of lossless loop structure in free space.
When tuned to resonance, the response is simply that of a series RLC circuit where R=Rr (the radiation resistance) which is dependent on frequency, but varies very slowly with frequency compared to the net reactance X.
Above is a NEC simulation of such a loop. Continue reading Findling & Siwiak 2012 measurements of an Alexloop – discussion
Richard, G3CWI, measured the impedance and bandwidth of a Alexloop Walkham, a popular small transmitting loop (STL). The antenna was situated in the clear at 1.65m centre height above natural ground.
The key measurements were:
- centre frequency 7.014MHz, |Z|=51Ω, VSWR=1.1;
- VSWR=3 bandwidth 16.2kHz.
The step size of the analyser prevented measurement exactly at resonance, but R changes very closely with frequency near resonance so we can estimate it quite well. The above figures can be used to find R close to resonance.
Within the limits of measurement error, we can say that R at resonance should be very close to 51Ω, and VSWRmin close to 1.02. Continue reading G3CWI 2018 measurements of an Alexloop Walkham
(Findling, A & Siwiak 2012) documented measurements they made of a popular small transmitting loop (STL), an Alexloop Walkham.
Now Alexloops seem to have undergone some evolution, and there does not seem to be a clear list of model names or numbers with features or specifications, so to some extent the antenna is a little non descript.
The article did not document the environment of the test antenna, but Findling explained in correspondence that it was relatively clear of conducting structures and about 1.2m above natural ground.
A NEC-4.2 model of the antenna at 7MHz was built and calibrated to their measured half power bandwidth (19kHz). Model assumptions include:
- ‘average’ ground (σ=0.005, εr=13);
- Q of the tuning capacitor = 1000;
- conductivity of the loop conductor adjusted to calibrate the model half power bandwidth to measurement.
Note that the model may depart from the actual test scenario in other ways, it is challenging to glean all the data that one would like from the article.
Above is an extract from (Findling, A & Siwiak 2012).
Above is the VSWR scan of the calibrated model, the load is matched at centre frequency and half power bandwidth is taken as the range between ReturnLoss=6.99dB points. Continue reading Findling & Siwiak 2012 measurements of an Alexloop
Recent discussion online of a purported commercial HF small transmitting loop (STL) was challenged in analysing the structure, questioning whether such a connection was ‘correct’.
The STL used a main loop resonator and a separate small auxiliary loop for the 50Ω feed, a very common arrangement.
The main loop is a coaxial cable with, in this case, a tuning capacitor inserted between the inner conductors at each end. Above is a diagram of the main loop. Continue reading Single turn coaxial loop resonator analysis
At PD7MAA’s BN43-202 matching transformer for an EFHW I gave an estimate of the core loss in PD7MAA’s transformer.
An online expert questioned the analysis and later measurements, and proposed his own transformer design as evidence.
Notably, his transformer uses #61 material and a larger binocular core, a Fair-rite 2861006802 with 2t for a nominal 50Ω primary, giving loss measurements at 7MHz of 0.08dB. Note that the confidence limits of that loss measurement because of the way in which it was obtained (eg a 1% error in the 1120Ω load resistor contributes 0.043dB error to the result), but the measurements do suggest that the loss is probably very low.
Though the loss is low and Return Loss is high at 7MHz, the limits for ReturnLoss>14dB (VSWR<1.5) is 5-18MHz. With compensation, that range may be changed.
Lets apply the method laid out at PD7MAA’s BN43-202 matching transformer for an EFHW.
The best Fair-rite data I can find quickly is a chart of the impedance of a one turn winding.
Scaling from this graph, Xs is close of 35Ω at 7MHz, so lets used that to derive some basic parameters for the core. Continue reading WW1WW’s matching transformer for an EFHW
A new release, AIM914 appeared recently.
In the common theme of one step forward, two steps backwards, this version has defects that were not present in AIM910B.
Let’s review the internal consistency of this part of the display screen.
Most of the values given above are calculated from a single measurement value, and should be internally consistent. That measurement value is translated to different quantities, many based on the stated Zref (75Ω in this case). Continue reading AIM 914 produces internally inconsistent results
This article documents a measurement of Matched Line Loss (MLL) of a 35m test section of generic RG6/U Quad Shield CCS.
It has become impossible in recent years to buy low cost RG6/U with solid centre conductor locally, and the imported product with solid copper conductor is prohibitively expensive (~$6/m as against $0.35/m for the CCS).
The CCS cable does have near copper like performance at UHF and above, but what is its behavior at HF?
Above is calculated MLL from a S11 scan of the test section with S/C and O/C termination. There is a little ripple on the response due to measurement error. The graph also has a curve fit, MLL=0.0285f^0.1506 (F in MHz). Continue reading Matched Line Loss of generic RG6/U Quad Shield CCS
At On Witt’s calculation of Matched Line Loss from Return Loss I discussed the common but flawed thinking that Matched Line Loss (MLL) can be calculated as half of the Return Loss of either a S/C or O/C section of transmission line.
The article discusses Witt’s calculation (half the average of Return Loss for S/C and O/C conditions) and notes that it can be a good approximation where the actual Zo is very close to the Zo on which the Return Loss measurement is based, and that the line loss is low.
This article looks at a case study of a section of low loss nominally 75Ω line is measured on a 50Ω instrument to illustrate sensitivity to Zo error.
A 3.1m section of RG6 was measured with O/C then S/C termination using a 50Ω VNA, and HalfReturnLoss (HRL), |S11| and phase of S11 is plotted.
Above, the O/C termination. Continue reading Inferring Matched Line Loss from Half Return Loss measurements – Zo error
At Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:200Ω I laid out a design using Fair-rite a #43 ferrite smallish binocular core. #43 is a medium permeability NiZn ferrite.
I have been asked by several correspondents why I used #43 when the consensus of online experts is that #75 is a clearly better choice for the application.
Let me say that almost all such articles and posts:
- are absent any quantitative measurement of their proposed design;
- they tend to use medium to large toroids; and
- the few that expose their design calcs treat permeability as a real number that is independent of frequency.
#75 mix is a high permeability MnZn ferrite and subject to dimensional resonance in the frequency range of interest for this application, a problem exacerbated by using larger cores.
Permeability is a complex quantity that is frequency dependent and any analysis that pretends otherwise is not soundly based. Continue reading Loop in ground (LiG) – #5 – small broadband RF transformer – discussion of ferrite material choice
A series of recent articles developed a Loop In Ground antenna system design.
To test the prototype, I thought it an interesting exercise to use a low end rx only SDR for the instrumentation, providing a graphic quantitative measure of performance that is within the reach of most hams.
The first device trialled was a RTL-SDR v3 dongle with Sdrsharp (SDR#) software under windows, a very low cost option ($40). I was unable to find meaningful NF specifications or end user measurements for the thing in direct sampling mode. Continue reading Loop in ground (LiG) – #4 – SDR for measurement?