One of the popular ideas online is that the correction process in the NanoVNA does not correct errors in mismatch at Port 1 and Port 2. This article deals with the first case ONLY, Port 1 mismatch.
An experiment with source VSWR nominally 2:1
A NanoVNA was configured with a SMA tee connected to Port 1 and a good 50Ω termination connected to the branch port, see the pic below. The left hand side of the tee becomes the new Port 1 interface, and by virtue of the additional 50Ω shunt termination, if the native Port 1 was indeed well represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit with Zs close to 50+j0, the Thevenin source impedance is now closer to half that, Zs close to 25+j0.
Some would calculate this mismatch as causing a mismatch loss of 0.512dB that is additional loss in the s21 path.
Above is the test setup. The NanoVNA was SOLT calibrated with cal parts attached to the left hand side of the tee and the 200mm coax jumper from that point to Port 2. Continue reading NanoVNA source mismatch error
Later NanoVNA-H* hardware allows the device to start in bootloader mode by holding the jog switch in whilst powering on. It is a very convenient facility for firmware update, much more convenient than taking the case apart to jumper BOOT0 to VDD. (Some later firmwares provide a menu option to start the bootloader… but of course that is only useful if the firmware is running properly and may not be useful in the event of a failed firmware update.)
This was a mod I devised prior to the v3.4 hardware change, it is not identical to that change as it preceded it, but it works fine on v3.3 hardware and may work on earlier versions.
The mod calls for replacing R5 with a 1k (1402) and running a short jumper from the T terminal of the jog switch to the un-grounded end of R6.
To use it, hold the jog switch in and turn the nanoVNA on.
Above a pic of the mod. It is a simple mod, but very fine soldering so it might not be within everyone’s capability.
The VK-AMPS 2kW directional coupler is available at modest cost.
The coupler was purchased as an assembled module as pictured above.
It is a Sontheimer coupler and uses AD8307 logarithmic detectors in the FWD and REF channels. Continue reading Digital display for VK-AMPS 2kW directional coupler – part 1
The Revex W560 is a dual range VSWR meter that was also sold under other brand names.
The low frequency range is specified as 1.8-160MHz.
This project is for an external digital display to suit the low frequency band of the W560. Whilst this project is for a specific meter, the techniques are applicable more widely. Continue reading Digital display for Revex W560 directional wattmeter – part 1
How important is coupler Directivity?
Let’s discuss what the term means, and the uncertainty of measurement of DUT VSWR or ReturnLoss due to coupler Directivity.
Coupler performance parameters
Consider the above diagram, when terminated in a matched load, the key performance characteristics are: Continue reading How important is directional coupler Directivity?
A chap asked online for dimensions of a 50MHz dipole with a feed point of 200+j0 to suit 50Ω feed line and a 1:4 coax half wave balun. The “+/- 0j” is hammy Sammy talk from an ‘Extra’.
This type of balun, properly implemented, is a good voltage balun, and it is quite suited to a highly symmetric antenna.
A good voltage balun will deliver approximately equal voltages (wrt the input ground) with approximately opposite phase, irrespective of the load impedance (including symmetry).
Where the load is symmetric, we can say a good voltage balun will deliver approximately equal currents with approximately opposite phase, irrespective of the load impedance.
It is an interesting application, and contrary to the initial responses on social media, there is a simple solution.
Let’s take a half wave dipole and lengthen it a little so the feed point admittance becomes 1/200-jB (or 200 || jX). We will build an NEC model of the thing in free space.
Above is a sweep of the dipole which is 3.14m long (we will talk about how we came to that length later), and the Smith chart prime centre is 200+j0… the target impedance. Continue reading Center-Fed Dipole : elements length for a Z=200 +/- 0j ohms
Reviewing consistency of measured and model data, the first posting was based on an incorrect model parameter (aol), the article is now revised for the correct value, apologies.
End Fed Half Wave matching transformer – 80-20m described a EFHW transformer design with taps for nominal 1:36, 49, and 64 impedance ratios.
Keep in mind that this is a desk design of a transformer to come close to ideal broadband performance on a nominal 2400Ω load with low loss. Real antennas don’t offer an idealised load, but this is the first step in designing and applying a practical transformer.
The transformer comprises a 32t of 0.65mm enamelled copper winding on a Fair-rite 5943003801 core (FT240-43) ferrite core (the information is not applicable to an Amidon core), to be used as an autotransformer to step down a EFHW load impedance to around 50Ω. The winding layout is unconventional, most articles describing a similar transformer seem to have their root in a single flawed design, and they are usually published without meaningful credible measurement. Continue reading End Fed Half Wave matching transformer – 80-20m – model and measurement
This article expands on discussion at nanoVNA – that demo board and its U.FL connectors.
Before looking at the specifics of the Hirose U.FL connector, clean connectors work better and last longer. That should not be a revelation.
A can of IPA cleaner and a good air puffer are invaluable for cleaning connectors. The air puffer show has a valve in the right hand end, it doesn’t suck the dirt and solvent out of the connector and blow it back like most cheap Chinese puffers, this one was harder to find and expensive ($10!). Continue reading U.FL connectors – hints
One method described online on YouTube and in social media is the
90° method as I will call it.
The reason why people make measurements at +/- 90 degrees on the smith chart is because the measurement accuracy using the shunt configuration when trying to measure the nominal value of an inductor or capacitor is highest at 0+j50 ohms (or 0-j50 ohms… OD).
To be clear, this is the phase of s11 or Γ being + or – 90° as applicable.
Is there something optimal when phase of s11 is + or – 90°?
Does the software / firmware / hardware give significantly more accurate response under such a termination?
Above is a diagram from a HP publication, slightly altered to suit the discussion. Continue reading NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 7
A VNA is usually calibrated by the user at some chosen reference plane using standard parts, commonly an open circuit, short circuit, and nominal (50Ω) load. As a result of this OSL calibration, the VNA is able to correct measured s11 to that reference plane, and display its results wrt that reference plane.
There are occasions where it is not possible, or not convenient to locate the DUT at the reference plane. This article discusses the problem created, and some solutions that might give acceptable accuracy for the application at hand.
The discussion assumes the VNA is calibrated for nominal 50+j0Ω.
Above is a diagram of a configuration where the unknown Zl is not located exactly at the reference plane, but at some extension. Continue reading NanoVNA – Port 1 port extension