The private and public scope of coaxial cable

Let’s start by reviewing the concept of inductance.

Inductance

Inductance of a conductor is the property that a change in current in a conductor causes a electro motive force (emf or voltage) to be induced in a conductor.

We can speak of self inductance where the voltage is induced in the same conductor as the changing current, or mutual inductance where the changing current in one conductor induces a voltage in another conductor. Continue reading The private and public scope of coaxial cable

Exploiting your antenna analyser #30

Quality of termination used for calibration

Some of us use a resistor as a load for testing a transmitter or other RF source. In this application they are often rated for quite high power and commonly called a dummy load. In that role, they usually do not need to be of highly accurate impedance, and commercial dummy loads will often be specified to have maximum VSWR in the range 1.1 to 1.5 (Return Loss (RL) from 26 to 14dB) over a specified frequency range.

We also use a known value resistor for measurement purposes, and often relatively low power rating but higher impedance accuracy. They are commonly caused terminations, and will often be specified to have maximum VSWR in the range 1.01 to 1.1 (RL from 46 to 26dB) over a specified frequency range.

Return Loss

It is more logical to discuss this subject in terms of Return Loss rather than VSWR.

Return Loss is defined as the ratio of incident to reflected power at a reference plane of a network. It is expressed in dB as 20*log(Vfwd/Vref). Continue reading Exploiting your antenna analyser #30

Pawsey Balun – what is it good for?

The Pawsey Balun (or Pawsey Stub) is described as a device for connecting an unbalanced feed to a balanced antenna.

Above is a diagram of a Pawsey Balun used with a half wave dipole (ARRL).

Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load reported model results in an asymetric dipole antenna, and showed very high common mode feed line current.

Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load – bench load simulation showed that although the Pawsey balun is not of itself an effective voltage balun or current balun, it can be augmented to be one or the other.

So, you might ask what they do, what they are good for, and why they are used. Continue reading Pawsey Balun – what is it good for?

Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load – bench load simulation

The Pawsey Balun (or Pawsey Stub) is described as a device for connecting an unbalanced feed to a balanced antenna.

Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load reported model results in an asymetric dipole antenna, and showed very high common mode feed line current.

This article looks at two test bench configurations modelled in NEC.

The configurations are of a horizontal Pawsey balun for 7MHz constructed 0.1m over a perfect ground plane. The ‘balanced’ terminals are attached to the ground plan by two short 0.1m vertical conductors which are loaded with 33 and 66Ω resistances. At the other end, the horizontal transmission line is extended by two different lengths and connected to the ground plane using a 0.1m vertical conductor. The two extension lengths are almost zero and a quarter wavelength.

Zero extension

The total horizontal length from the ‘balanced terminals’ to the grounded end of the transmission line is a quarter wavelength for the Pawsey balun and a further 20mm making approximately a quarter wavelength in total.

Above is a plot of current magnitude and phase from 4NEC2. The current on the two vertical conductors containing the 33 and 66Ω loads is quite different, and the product gives load voltages that are approximately equal in magnitude and opposite in phase. Continue reading Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load – bench load simulation

Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load

The Pawsey Balun (or Pawsey Stub) is described as a device for connecting an unbalanced feed to a balanced antenna.

Above is a diagram of a Pawsey Balun used with a half wave dipole (ARRL).

Whilst these have been quite popular with VHF/UHF antennas, the question arises as to how they work, and whether they are effective in reducing common mode current IIcm) for a wide range of load scenarios. Continue reading Pawsey Balun on an asymmetric load

A symmetric compensation stub using coax

A low Insertion VSWR high Zcm Guanella 1:1 balun for HF – more detail #3 discussed compensation of the Insertion VSWR response of a balun which in that case was wound with coax.

A correspondent wrote of his project with a Guanella 4:1 balun where each pair was wound with a pair of insulated wires, and importantly the output terminals are free to float as the load demands. A Guanella 1:1 balun wound in the same way has the same characteristic.

To preserve balun choking impedance, it is best to preserve balun symmetry, and the use of a short open circuit coaxial stub across the output terminals for InsertionVSWR compensation introduces some asymmetry.

An alternative construction with coaxial cable that is more symmetric is shown above. Continue reading A symmetric compensation stub using coax

Inherently balanced ATUs – part 4

Inherently balanced ATUs reported an experiment to measure the balance of a simulation of Cebik’s “inherently balanced ATU”, and following articles explored balance in some different scenarios, but none of them real antenna scenarios.

As pointed out in the articles, the solutions cannot be simply extended to real antenna scenarios. Nevertheless, it might provoke thinking about the performance of some types of so-called balanced ATUs,  indeed the naive nonsense of an “inherently balanced ATU”.
Continue reading Inherently balanced ATUs – part 4

Inherently balanced ATUs – part 3

Inherently balanced ATUs reported an experiment to measure the balance of a simulation of Cebik’s “inherently balanced ATU”.

This article reports the same asymmetric load using the MFJ-949E internal voltage balun.

The third experiment

The test circuit is an MFJ-949E T match ATU jumpered to use the internal balun and resistors of 50Ω and 100Ω connected from those terminals to provide a slightly asymmetric load.

The voltage between ground and each of the output terminals was measured with a scope, and currents calculated.

Above are the measured output voltage waveforms at 14MHz. Continue reading Inherently balanced ATUs – part 3

Inherently balanced ATUs – part 2

Inherently balanced ATUs reported an experiment to measure the balance of a simulation of Cebik’s “inherently balanced ATU”.

This article reports the same equipment reversed so that the common mode choke is connected to the output of the MFJ-949E.

The second experiment

The test circuit is an MFJ-949E T match ATU followed by A low Insertion VSWR high Zcm Guanella 1:1 balun for HF.  A banana jack adapter is connected to the balun output jack, and resistors of 50Ω and 100Ω connected from those terminals to provide a slightly asymmetric load.

The voltage between ground and each of the output terminals was measured with a scope, and currents calculated.

Above are the measured output voltage waveforms at 14MHz. Continue reading Inherently balanced ATUs – part 2

Inherently balanced ATUs

Hams are taken by fashion and pseudo technical discussion more than objective circuit analysis, experiment, and measurement. Nowhere is this more evident that the current fashion for “True Balanced Tuners”.

LB Cebik in 2005 in his article “10 Frequency (sic) Asked Questions about the All-Band Doublet” wrote

In recent years, interest in antennas that require parallel transmission lines has surged, spurring the development of new inherently balanced tuners.

Open wire lines require current balance to minimise radiation and pick up, the balance objective is current balance at all points on the line.

Cebik goes on to give examples of his “inherently balanced tuners”.

Above, Cebik’s “inherently balanced tuners” all have a common mode choke at the input, and some type of adjustable network to the output terminals. Continue reading Inherently balanced ATUs