nanoVNA-H – de-embedding the feed line in remote measurement

There are often times when it would be useful to transform measurements made looking into a feed line to the other end of the feed line.

Ham lore

Common advice given by online ham experts include:

  1. it just cannot be done, the best (only) point to measure an antenna is at the feed point;
  2. it can be done, but only with an integral number of half waves of feed line;
  3. use the port extension facility in your software;
  4. use software package x;
  5. do an OSL cal with the feed line being part of the fixture.

Continue reading nanoVNA-H – de-embedding the feed line in remote measurement

WIA 4:1 current balun – further measurements

4-101a

I mentioned in my article WIA 4:1 current balun that the use of a single toroidal core in the above graphic compromises the balun. This article presents some simple measurements and analysis that question whether the balun works as so many users think.

The popularity of the balun derives from the work of VK2DQ and is often known as the VK2DQ 4:1 current balun (though probably not his invention).

Analysis at the limits

Often, analysis of a network as frequency approaches zero or infinity can simplify the analysis whilst allowing a reasonable test of the sanity of the design.

Above is a conventional transformer schematic of the WIA 4:1 current balun on a perfectly symmetric (balanced) load. At frequencies where the electrical length of each winding is very short, we can assume negligible phase delay along or between windings, simplifying analysis greatly. Continue reading WIA 4:1 current balun – further measurements

4:1 current balun – identifying bad ones

Correspondents have informed me that the balun dealt with in article 4:1 current balun – review and fix and variants are very common. This article gives a checklist of common issues and some basic measurements using an antenna analyser that should reveal some issues without breaking into a sealed assembly.

Introduction

Baluns are commonly employed to obtain nearly balanced feed line currents (ie negligible common mode current) in two wire lines or negligible common mode current on coaxial feed lines. This article discusses baluns for that application.

A very common 4:1 current balun is Guanella’s 4:1 current balun, but there are others including pretenders.

Three common 4:1 current baluns

Guanella 4:1 current balun

(Guanella 1944) described a 4:1 current balun in his 1944 article, he did not show the winding pairs coupled by a magnetic core as shown above.

Guanella421

Above is Guanella’s circuit, and he does not show coupling between the two winding pairs.

Properly implemented, this device is known to work very well.

Sevick’s single core 4:1 current balun

Let us look at Sevick’s device because it underlies so many failures.

If you look at it very carefully, you will see that the two output wires emerge from opposite sides of the core, the left hand wire exiting under the core was wound from front to back of the core and the right hand wire exiting on top of the core was wound from back to front of the core. Continue reading 4:1 current balun – identifying bad ones

4:1 current balun – review and fix

This article reports tests on two 4:1 current balun configurations – a collaboration between Bruce, VK4MQ, and myself.

Purported current balun on a single magnetic core

Above is an attempt at a 4:1 current balun on a single core. Note that this is NOT wired in the insane series opposed connection of the WIA 4:1 current balun. Note also that this is NOT a Guanella 4:1 current balun (see below).

Lets measure the Insertion VSWR by placing a good 200+j0Ω load on the output terminals and measuring input VSWR over the range 1-30MHz. This load is what we will call an Isolated Load meaning it has only two terminals, and the current that flows into one terminal must flow out of the other terminal… in other words, the current MUST be balanced (ie equal magnitude but opposite phase currents in the two terminals)… we will come back to the Isolated Load later.

Above, measured InsertionVSWR. It is not too good, but not very bad either. Broadly the balun gives an almost reasonable 4:1 impedance transformation from load to input. Continue reading 4:1 current balun – review and fix

nanoVNA-H – Port 2 attenuator for improved Return Loss

nanoVNA-H – measure 40m low pass filter for WSPRlite flex describes measurement of the response of a filter.

The filter is of a type that depends on its source and termination impedance for as designed performance.

The article mentioned the use of a 10dB attenuator on the nanovna-h Port 2 for the purpose of improving the accuracy of the load impedance for the filter.

Like most low end vnas, the nanoVNA Port 2 VSWR or Return Loss is not wonderful, not as good as needed for some types of measurement. Return Loss can be improved by placing an attenuator ahead of the port. The nanoVNA-H v3.3 already includes an attenuator on the PCB, and the nanovha-H v3.4 increased that attenuation by about 5dB to improve Return Loss by about 10dB.

In my own case, I am using a nanoVNA-H and upon measurement of |s11| (-ReturnLoss) I determined that it needed to be improved by 20dB for my use so I purchased and installed a 10dB attenuator semi permanently on the Port 2 connector.

Above, the 10dB attenuator is semi permanently attached to Port 2 and also serves the purpose of a connector saver. There is a connector saver semi permanently attached to Port 1. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – Port 2 attenuator for improved Return Loss

A common mode choke for a VDSL pair – LF1260 core

This article describes a common mode choke intended to reduce RF interference with a VDSL service.

The MDF is located where the underground cable enters the building. From here it rises vertically and travels some 25m across the ceiling to the VDSL modem. Continue reading A common mode choke for a VDSL pair – LF1260 core

NEC – vertical monopole ground wave study

The article NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study discussed ‘radiation’ in the strict sense, this article takes a look at ground wave propagation from the same antenna.

NEC insight

Let us look at an example of a quarter wave monopole with 120 shallow buried radials, soil σ=0.005  εr=13, average ground, at 3.8MHz.

 

Above is the model geometry. Continue reading NEC – vertical monopole ground wave study

NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study

A recent online discussion contained an analysis of the radiation efficiency of a vertical monopole over real ground.

The poster dismissed the values calculated by 4NEC2 and proposed his own formula \(RadiationEfficiency=\frac{35.6}{\mathbb{R}Z_f}\) where 35.6 is the radiation resistance Rr of a quarter wave monopole over a perfectly conducting earth (PCE).

The reasoning seems to depend on Rr being independent of the ground type, but that is quite flawed.

NEC insight

Let us look at an example of a quarter wave monopole with 120 shallow buried radials, average ground, at 3.8MHz.

 

 

Above is the model geometry. Continue reading NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study

4NEC2 – summary statistics discussion

I am a frequent user of 4NEC2 despite its many defects. It is a great work of software, in need of improvement that I suspect will never happen. Its author explained some time ago that it was developed in VB6 and with Windows upgrades, he no longer has a working VB6 development platform.

So, despite its defects, it is a very useful tool.

This article set about explaining interpretation of the summary statistics shown on 4NEC2’s main form.

I will sometimes substitute _ for – in some 4NEC2 quantity labels for clarity in mathematical expressions. Continue reading 4NEC2 – summary statistics discussion

FT240-43 matching transformer for an EFHW – NEC model at 3.6MHz

The article End Fed Half Wave matching transformer – 80-20m laid out a design for a EFHW transformer based on the readily available FT240-43.

This article builds an NEC model for an EFHW antenna at 3.6MHz incorporating a realistic model of the above transformer.

NEC provides for a NT card characterising a two port network using Y parameters.

Y parameter model for the transformer

The Y parameter model is based on measured input impedance with port 2 open circuit, and short circuit, and the observed turns ratio.

Impedance was measured with the transformer at 3.6MHz using an AA-600.

Above, the calculated Y parameter model including a prototype NT card. This model captures the various loss components of the transformer, mainly magnetising loss, at 3.6MHz. Continue reading FT240-43 matching transformer for an EFHW – NEC model at 3.6MHz