## WIA 4:1 current balun – further measurements

I mentioned in my article WIA 4:1 current balun that the use of a single toroidal core in the above graphic compromises the balun. This article presents some simple measurements and analysis that question whether the balun works as so many users think.

The popularity of the balun derives from the work of VK2DQ and is often known as the VK2DQ 4:1 current balun (though probably not his invention).

## Analysis at the limits

Often, analysis of a network as frequency approaches zero or infinity can simplify the analysis whilst allowing a reasonable test of the sanity of the design.

Above is a conventional transformer schematic of the WIA 4:1 current balun on a perfectly symmetric (balanced) load. At frequencies where the electrical length of each winding is very short, we can assume negligible phase delay along or between windings, simplifying analysis greatly. Continue reading WIA 4:1 current balun – further measurements

## 4:1 current balun – identifying bad ones

Correspondents have informed me that the balun dealt with in article 4:1 current balun – review and fix and variants are very common. This article gives a checklist of common issues and some basic measurements using an antenna analyser that should reveal some issues without breaking into a sealed assembly.

## Introduction

Baluns are commonly employed to obtain nearly balanced feed line currents (ie negligible common mode current) in two wire lines or negligible common mode current on coaxial feed lines. This article discusses baluns for that application.

A very common 4:1 current balun is Guanella’s 4:1 current balun, but there are others including pretenders.

## Three common 4:1 current baluns

### Guanella 4:1 current balun

(Guanella 1944) described a 4:1 current balun in his 1944 article, he did not show the winding pairs coupled by a magnetic core as shown above.

Above is Guanella’s circuit, and he does not show coupling between the two winding pairs.

Properly implemented, this device is known to work very well.

### Sevick’s single core 4:1 current balun

Let us look at Sevick’s device because it underlies so many failures.

If you look at it very carefully, you will see that the two output wires emerge from opposite sides of the core, the left hand wire exiting under the core was wound from front to back of the core and the right hand wire exiting on top of the core was wound from back to front of the core. Continue reading 4:1 current balun – identifying bad ones

## 4:1 current balun – review and fix

This article reports tests on two 4:1 current balun configurations – a collaboration between Bruce, VK4MQ, and myself.

## Purported current balun on a single magnetic core

Above is an attempt at a 4:1 current balun on a single core. Note that this is NOT wired in the insane series opposed connection of the WIA 4:1 current balun. Note also that this is NOT a Guanella 4:1 current balun (see below).

Lets measure the Insertion VSWR by placing a good 200+j0Ω load on the output terminals and measuring input VSWR over the range 1-30MHz. This load is what we will call an Isolated Load meaning it has only two terminals, and the current that flows into one terminal must flow out of the other terminal… in other words, the current MUST be balanced (ie equal magnitude but opposite phase currents in the two terminals)… we will come back to the Isolated Load later.

Above, measured InsertionVSWR. It is not too good, but not very bad either. Broadly the balun gives an almost reasonable 4:1 impedance transformation from load to input. Continue reading 4:1 current balun – review and fix

## nanoVNA-H – Port 2 attenuator for improved Return Loss

nanoVNA-H – measure 40m low pass filter for WSPRlite flex describes measurement of the response of a filter.

The filter is of a type that depends on its source and termination impedance for as designed performance.

The article mentioned the use of a 10dB attenuator on the nanovna-h Port 2 for the purpose of improving the accuracy of the load impedance for the filter.

Like most low end vnas, the nanoVNA Port 2 VSWR or Return Loss is not wonderful, not as good as needed for some types of measurement. Return Loss can be improved by placing an attenuator ahead of the port. The nanoVNA-H v3.3 already includes an attenuator on the PCB, and the nanovha-H v3.4 increased that attenuation by about 5dB to improve Return Loss by about 10dB.

In my own case, I am using a nanoVNA-H and upon measurement of |s11| (-ReturnLoss) I determined that it needed to be improved by 20dB for my use so I purchased and installed a 10dB attenuator semi permanently on the Port 2 connector.

Above, the 10dB attenuator is semi permanently attached to Port 2 and also serves the purpose of a connector saver. There is a connector saver semi permanently attached to Port 1. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – Port 2 attenuator for improved Return Loss

## A common mode choke for a VDSL pair – LF1260 core

This article describes a common mode choke intended to reduce RF interference with a VDSL service.

The MDF is located where the underground cable enters the building. From here it rises vertically and travels some 25m across the ceiling to the VDSL modem. Continue reading A common mode choke for a VDSL pair – LF1260 core

## nanoVNA-H – measuring an inductor – is it a no-brainer?

Let’s explore measurement of a test inductor with the nanovna.

Above is the test inductor, enamelled wire on an acrylic tube.

For a 100 nH inductor you are probably using an air wound coil so you won’t see that much change in inductance with frequency. However, inductors made with toroids will because the permeability of the core goes down with frequency.

So, this is an air cored inductor, permeability is approximately that of free space, a constant 4πe-7 independent of frequency. Nevertheless we will see that apparent inductance can change with frequency. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – measuring an inductor – is it a no-brainer?

## nanoVNA-H – continuing USB-C repair

I have reported issue with the USB-C plug / socket arrangement on the nanoVNA-H.

It is very sensitive to any jiggling of the cable or connector, causing a reset of the nanoVNA which almost always means lost work. The supplied cable was a partial cause, but sadly the jack on the PCB is also faulty.

This has progressively gotten worse to the point the nanoVNA-H is unusable. I have had a replacement socket on order for months from China where public health problems are causing chaos, it has only just shipped so could be some months yet.

I do realise that this is replacing cheap Chinese junk with cheap Chinese junk.

Anyway… it finally arrived after many months. A pack of 10 sockets cost \$2.30 incl shipping, so it gives one a fair idea of how cheap the low grade connector that was used would have come.

Above, the replacement USB-C socket soldered in to the board without removing the display. The SB1 pad lifted of the board during removal of the old socket, no connection is made to it, so no harm done. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – continuing USB-C repair

## NEC – vertical monopole ground wave study

The article NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study discussed ‘radiation’ in the strict sense, this article takes a look at ground wave propagation from the same antenna.

## NEC insight

Let us look at an example of a quarter wave monopole with 120 shallow buried radials, soil σ=0.005  εr=13, average ground, at 3.8MHz.

Above is the model geometry. Continue reading NEC – vertical monopole ground wave study

## NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study

A recent online discussion contained an analysis of the radiation efficiency of a vertical monopole over real ground.

The poster dismissed the values calculated by 4NEC2 and proposed his own formula $$RadiationEfficiency=\frac{35.6}{\mathbb{R}Z_f}$$ where 35.6 is the radiation resistance Rr of a quarter wave monopole over a perfectly conducting earth (PCE).

The reasoning seems to depend on Rr being independent of the ground type, but that is quite flawed.

## NEC insight

Let us look at an example of a quarter wave monopole with 120 shallow buried radials, average ground, at 3.8MHz.

Above is the model geometry. Continue reading NEC – vertical monopole radiation resistance study

## Milton Moore’s power supply test

When I was a student at TAFE in 1970, a teacher, Milton Moore, explained why the lab power supplies that were used, Perini & Scott 30V 2A, were the largest power supplies given their modest capability.

He explained that they were almost student proof. He went on the classify students in three categories, the average students constituted the bulk, then there were the quite inept who damaged the best equipment by doing things that no one could have anticipated, and the very bright who sought to understand equipment and expose their weakness.

Milton explained that they tested these power supplies using the rat tail file and hacksaw blade test. One output terminal was attached to the rat tail file and the other to a hacksaw blade, the voltage and current were set to max and the rat tail file and hacksaw blade were rubbed together yielding a shower of sparks… and possibly smoke from the DUT.

At the time I was very interested in overcurrent protection of linear regulators, so this was especially interesting.

## ua723 – the darling of power supply designers of the time

Lets look at the issue with the ua723, recently released at that time and appearing in lots of designs.

Above is a schematic from the ua723 datasheet. Rsc is the current sense resistor and it is chosen to develop 0.6V at the current limit, so for instance in a 20A power supply it would have a value of 0.6/20=0.03Ω. So, the current sense circuit presents a Thevenin equivalent circuit of Vth=Rsc*I and Rth=Rsc. Continue reading Milton Moore’s power supply test