## On negative VSWR – a worked example

On negative VSWR (read it first) discussed the case of negative VSWR results from some calculating tools  and formulas, and more generally that simple formulas that depend on lossless line assumptions produce errors on practical lossy line scenarios.

If we were to use a probe to directly measure the magnitude of line voltage, we would expect the following.

Above, the standing wave plot. At first appearance it might look like a classic standing wave plot, but it is not… there is a tiny difference in the shape at the right hand side. Continue reading On negative VSWR – a worked example

## On negative VSWR

Some calculating tools come up with a negative value of VSWR under some circumstances.

Considering the meaning of VSWR: the ratio of the voltage maximum on a long transmission line to the adjacent voltage minimum, calculated negative VSWR might seem an aberration, invalid even. Note that nothing in this definition makes VSWR a property of a dimensionless point on a line.

VSWR can be measured directly by sampling voltage along a transmission line with a voltage probe. That said, it is almost never done and VSWR is inferred from other measurements, usually point measurements.

A transmission line is free to carry waves in two directions, and the ratio of voltage to current for each of those waves is the characteristic impedance Zo. Continue reading On negative VSWR

## Trying to make sense of the STC U8W chip programmer

STC is a Chinese maker of microcontroller chips, mostly 8051 architecture. The whole environment is characterised by a lack of English language information, or unreliable information.

The U8W is a programmer for some of their chips, and works in concert with their ISP programming software (Windows).

Above is the U8W. It was supplied without any documentation by an Aliexpress seller. Requests from the seller and from STC have not yielded any information. Continue reading Trying to make sense of the STC U8W chip programmer

## Fox flasher MkII – update 07/2019

Fox flasher MkII described a LED driver for an animal deterrent using a Chinese 8051 architecture microcontroller, the STC15F104E.

Above, the schematic. A very simple circuit with just a handful of electronic components (one capacitor, two resistors, one LDR, one Polyswitch, 4 x LEDs and the MCU). Note the capacitor in shunt with the LDR, it is to reduce noise and to provide a level of RFI protection. Continue reading Fox flasher MkII – update 07/2019

## The private and public scope of coaxial cable

Let’s start by reviewing the concept of inductance.

## Inductance

Inductance of a conductor is the property that a change in current in a conductor causes a electro motive force (emf or voltage) to be induced in a conductor.

We can speak of self inductance where the voltage is induced in the same conductor as the changing current, or mutual inductance where the changing current in one conductor induces a voltage in another conductor. Continue reading The private and public scope of coaxial cable

## Average power of SSB telephony – experimental verification

Average power of SSB telephony used 80 year old research by (Holbrook and Dixon 1939) to come up with a ratio of peak voltage to RMS voltage of a voice waveform, and from that derive the ratio PEP/Pav..

(Holbrook and Dixon 1939) explored the subject measuring the voice characteristics of many talkers (as there is variation amongst talkers) to come up with an average characteristic.

Whilst in its day, obtaining instantaneous samples of voice was a challenge, it is trivial today and if you can’t believe the numbers given, try your own experiment (but realise it is for your own voice rather than the general population).

Many modern PC sound applications are capable of the measurement, I will demonstrate it with the feed Windows application Audacity with the stats.ny addin.

Above is a screenshot of a 6s recording of my voice made without stopping for breath. The statistics window shows a peak of -8.9dBFS and RMS of -27.4dBFS, giving a peak voltage to RMS voltage ratio of 18.5dB. Continue reading Average power of SSB telephony – experimental verification

## Power rating of a ferrite cored transformer or balun

Commercial products often have power ratings that bear checking.

There are common some key properties that are relevant:

• where loss is high, core loss tends to dominate;
• the specific heat of ferrite is typically quite high;
• the capacity to dissipate heat is related to many factors.

## Average power of SSB telephony

Some components used for SSB telephony need not be capable of handling the Peak Envelope Power (PEP) continuously, many components for instance respond to the average power (Pav) which is quite less. Essentially, components that are subject to voltage breakdown (usually as good as instantaneous) must withstand the PEP, those that heat relatively slowly must withstand Pav.

In estimating the power dissipated in components due to an SSB telephony waveform, a good estimate of the ratio of Average Power (Pav) to Peak Envelope Power (PEP) is very useful.

Long before hams had used SSB, the figure has been of interest to designers of FDM or carrier telephone systems to size amplifiers that must handle n channels of FDM multiplex without overload which would degrade S/N in other channels of the multiplex. The methods are applicable to SSB telephony, it uses the same modulation type and the overload challenges are the same.

(Holbrook and Dixon 1939) gave the graph above which characterises the ratio of instantaneous peak to RMS voltage of voice telephony for different numbers of channels in a multiplex and different expectation of overload or clipping. They recommend a very low probability of clipping at 0.1% to avoid significant intermodulation noise in adjacent channels. Continue reading Average power of SSB telephony

## Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon – update 6/2019

Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon described a LED driver for an animal deterrent using a Chinese 8051 architecture microcontroller, the STC15F104E.

This article documents its failure  in June 2019 after five years service.  Continue reading Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon – update 6/2019

## Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon – update 6/2018

Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon described a LED driver for an animal deterrent using a Chinese 8051 architecture microcontroller, the STC15F104E.

This article documents its failure  in June 2018 after three years service.

With the passage of time, the PV array surface has degraded until solar collection was insufficient to maintain the battery over several heavily overcast Winter days.

Above, a close up of the PV array surface. The pic is of about 8mm width, and one can barely see the silicon stripes which are about 2mm wide. Continue reading Fox flasher MkII – high power 2 LED solar powered beacon – update 6/2018