Return Loss Bridge – some woolly thinking

Some discussion on groups.io nanovna-users attempts to explain the behavior of the RF Return Loss Bridge used in some VNAs and other instruments, proof if you will that the instruments are not capable of measuring more than a few hundred ohms.

Above is his diagram. He gives an expression that he states applies when R1=R3=R4=Rm: im = sqrt(Vf*(Rm – R2)/(12*Rm + 4*R2)). Continue reading Return Loss Bridge – some woolly thinking

On Insertion Loss

Readers of my articles occasionally ask for explanation of the distinction between meanings of:

• Insertion Loss;
• Mismatch Loss;
• Loss (or Transmission Loss).

These terms apply to linear circuits, it circuits that comply with linear circuit theory, things like that impedances are independent of voltage and current, sources are well represented by Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits.

Insertion Loss

Insertion Loss is the ratio of power into a matched load (to mean that the load impedance is the complex conjugate of the Thevenin equivalent source impedance) to the power in the load with the subject network / device inserted.

Insertion Loss can also be expressed in dB.

Mismatch Loss

Mismatch Loss is the ratio of output power of a source into a matched load to the output power under a given mismatch.

Mismatch Loss can also be expressed in dB.

Loss

Loss is simply $$\frac{Power_{in}}{Power_{out}}$$.

Loss can also be expressed in dB.

Loss is sometimes called Transmission Loss to distinguish it from other qualifications, but it is unnecessary. Recent hammy Sammy practice is to label |s21| graphs Transmission Loss which is an error on two counts.

Let’s illustrate these with some examples using Simsmith. Whilst these are models, you would expect to measure similar results using a good VNA or like test equipment. Continue reading On Insertion Loss

Fair-rite’s ‘new’ #43 permeability data (2020)

Fair-rite publishes spreadsheets of the complex permeability characteristic of many of the ferrite mixes. This note is about #43 mix and clarification I sought from Fair-rite.

Question

I note that recently, the published table of #43 permeability changed subtly but significantly. Does this table apply to historical product, or does it only apply to new product, ie was there an actual change in the mix, or what it the result of better measurement of characteristics?

A DIY thermostat based on the MS1230A controller

This article documents the build of a DIY thermostat based on an inexpensive (\$12) Chinese temperature controller.

Controller module

The controller used is a 220VAC MH1230A.

Above is an internal view of the controller. Importantly it has a relay rated at 240V 30A, and 15A at PF=0.4. The datasheet rates the relay for a 2HP (1.5kW) motor. It uses a ‘conventional’ power supply, the brown component is the power transformer. Most similar products use inadequate relays and have low grade switched mode power supplies that create RF noise. Continue reading A DIY thermostat based on the MS1230A controller

Fox flasher MkII update 2/2021

Fox Flasher MkII and several follow on articles described an animal deterrent based on a Chinese 8051 architecture microcontroller, the STC15F104E.

This is an update after several years operation outside, and some in-service modifications to improve performance.

Above is the current version after 18 months in the weather. Continue reading Fox flasher MkII update 2/2021

Mornhinweg ferrite core measurements – #61

Further to Amidon’s method of rating ferrite inductors and transformers, this article discusses some interesting measurements of ferrite toroids by Manfred Mornhinweg (Mornhinweg 2019).

Mornhinweg ferrite core measurements – #31 discussed his measurements of a #31 suppression sleeve.

Above are his measurements of a FB-61-6873 sleeve. Essentially there are two measurements at each frequency, and the expected flux density B is in the ratio of approximately 2:1. He has fitted a straight line on a log/log graph to the measurements at each frequency. The similarity of the slopes is not unexpected, and is a tribute to his experiment design, execution and calculations. Continue reading Mornhinweg ferrite core measurements – #61

Using complex permeability to design with Fair-rite suppression products

Fair-rite allocates some of its closed loop ferrite products to two different categories:

• inductive; and
• suppression.

Sometimes the same dimensioned cores are available in both categories with different part numbers and possibly different prices, implying some real difference in behavior, eg 5943003801 and 2643803802 are both FT240-43 sized cores.

Material datasheets often contain a note like this from the #43 datasheet:

Characteristic curves are measured on standard Toroids (18/10/6 mm) at 25°C and 10 kHz unless otherwise indicated. Impedance characteristics are measured on standard shield beads (3.5/1.3/6.0 mm) unless otherwise indicated.

I sought to clarify my interpretation of this clause by asking Fair-rite …whether the published material permeability curves / tables apply to suppression product. Can I use the published permeability curves / tables to predict inductor impedance reliably for suppression products?  Fair-rite’s Michael Arasim advised… Continue reading Using complex permeability to design with Fair-rite suppression products

Calculate ferrite cored inductor – rectangular cross section – enhancement – chamfered corners

The calculator Calculate ferrite cored inductor – rectangular cross section has until now assumed that the toroid has sharp corners. The corner treatment varies across commercial products, some are burnished which removes very little material, some have a chamfer or bevel, some are radiused. All of these treatments give rise to a very small error in calculated ΣA/l.

The calculator has been revised to include 45° chamfers of a specified length on all four corners. If the chamfer angle differs, the error is very small in the range 30-60°. If the corners are radiused, use the radius as the chamfer length, the error is very small. Continue reading Calculate ferrite cored inductor – rectangular cross section – enhancement – chamfered corners

Operation instructions

Press “set” button for 3s get into the procedure menu code mode, display the code “HC”. Press up or down for cyclical selection of parameter code of “HC-CP-LA-HA-PU-CA”.
To enter a code, press the “Set” button, press the up button or the down button to change to the desired data and press “Set” to save and exit;
Control the temperature set: press “Set” button, display blink and it is the default setting. Press up or down to change the data and save automatically. (press on up or down for 2s or more to increase the adjusting speed ) heating control: when the temperature control mode ( code is HC) was H, e.g. the setting control temperature is 28 C , slewing range of temperature is 2 C , when the environment temperature >= setting temperature (28’C), the relay will switch off and stop the output load; when the environment temperature <=setting temperature (28C ) – slewing range of temperature (2 C ) and set “delayed start” before, the reply will switch on and output load again, (if the delayed start function doesn’t need, set the delayed start (code PU) to 0)
refrigeration control: when the temperature control mode (code is HC) was C, e.g. the setting control temperature is 28’C, slewing range of temperature is 2 C, when the environment temperature <=after setting “delayed start” time, the relay will switch on and sart output load.(suggest “delayed start” time to the default setting time to protecting the compressor, please set the (code PU) to) if it doesn’t need). Continue reading MH1210A, MH1230A operating instructions

Mornhinweg ferrite core measurements – #31

Further to Amidon’s method of rating ferrite inductors and transformers, this article discusses some interesting measurements of ferrite toroids by Manfred Mornhinweg (Mornhinweg 2019).

Above are his measurements of a FB-31-6873 sleeve. Essentially there are two measurements at each frequency, and the expected flux density B is in the ratio of approximately 2:1. He has fitted a straight line on a log/log graph to the measurements at each frequency. The similarity of the slopes is not unexpected, and is a tribute to his experiment design, execution and calculations. Continue reading Mornhinweg ferrite core measurements – #31