Quantifying performance of a simple broadcast receive system on MF

I see online discussions struggling to try to work out if a receiving system is sufficiently good for a certain application.

Let’s work an example using Simsmith to do some of the calculations.

Scenario:

  • 20m ground mounted vertical base fed against a 2.4m driven earth electrode @ 0.5MHz;
  • 10m RG58A/U coax; and
  • Receiver with 500+j0Ω ohms input impedance and Noise Figure 20dB.

An NEC-4.2 model of the antenna gives a feed point impedance of 146-j4714Ω and radiation efficiency of 0.043%, so radiation resistance \(Rr=146 \cdot 0.00043=0.0063\).

Above, the NEC antenna model summary. Continue reading Quantifying performance of a simple broadcast receive system on MF

KL7AJ on the Conjugate Match Theorem – analytical solution – Simsmith

KL7AJ on the Conjugate Match Theorem asked the question Should we have expected this outcome?

Let us solve a very similar problem analytically where measurement errors do not contribute to the outcome.

Taking the load impedance to be the same 10.1+j0.2Ω, and calculating for a T match similar to the MFJ-949E (assuming L=26µH, QL=200, and ideal capacitors) with Simsmith we can find a near perfect match.

The capacitors are 177.2 and 92.9pF for the match. Continue reading KL7AJ on the Conjugate Match Theorem – analytical solution – Simsmith

Applying the RG6/U to a 40m Inverted V Dipole antenna

This article describes an antenna system for 40m based on:

  • an inverted V dipole;
  • Guanella 1:1 balun; and
  • a ‘tuned’ length of RG6/U CCS coax.

The antenna system will be centred on 7.080MHz to suit my own operating preferences.

The coax is that featured at nanoVNA – RG6/U with CCS centre conductor MLL measurement and the matched line loss is taken from measurement as 4.1dB/100m @ 7.1MHz (all conductor loss). The feed line cost $50 for 100m incl delivery, so this project uses $12 worth of cable.

The broad concept is that the dipole is tuned a little shorter than a half wavelength to excite a standing wave on the coax. The VSWR desired is a little over 1.5, and the length of the coax is tuned so that the impedance looking into the coax is close to 50+j0Ω. “A little over” is so that the VSWR at the source end is very close to 1.5.

Above, the topology of the Inverted V Dipole with modelled current distribution in green. The apex of the dipole is at 11m and it is over ‘average ground’ (σ=0.005 εr=13). Continue reading Applying the RG6/U to a 40m Inverted V Dipole antenna

Applying the RG11A/U to a 40m Inverted V Dipole antenna

This article describes an antenna system for 40m based on:

  • an inverted V dipole;
  • Guanella 1:1 balun; and
  • a ‘tuned’ length of RG11A/U CCS coax.

The antenna system will be centred on 7.080MHz to suit my own operating preferences.

The coax is that featured at Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation and the matched line loss is taken from measurement as 1.2dB/100m @ 7MHz (all conductor loss). The feed line cost $99 for 305m incl delivery, so this project uses $6.50 worth of cable. The feed line is not good because it is cheap, it is good because it suits the application very well, and as a bonus, it is inexpensive.

The broad concept is that the dipole is tuned a little shorter than a half wavelength to excite a standing wave on the coax. The VSWR desired is a little over 1.5, and the length of the coax is tuned so that the impedance looking into the coax is close to 50+j0Ω. “A little over” is so that the VSWR at the source end is very close to 1.5.

Above, the topology of the Inverted V Dipole with modelled current distribution in green. The apex of the dipole is at 11m and it is over ‘average ground’ (σ=0.005 εr=13). Continue reading Applying the RG11A/U to a 40m Inverted V Dipole antenna

144MHz beacon observation from Wellington NSW – 3 aircraft reflections

VK2TP at Wellington has been making observations of aircraft enhancement of the path between my 144MHz beacon and Wellington, an obstructed direct path of 259km. The beacon modulation pattern includes a long steady carrier which permits better observation of the nature of these aircraft enhanced paths. Continue reading 144MHz beacon observation from Wellington NSW – 3 aircraft reflections

Steel as an antenna radiator

One sees discussions online regarding the suitability of various conductor materials for antennas and feedlines.

A recent thread asked about steel as an antenna radiator and one response tried to answer the question using NEC models of a half wave 40m dipole.

Above is the graphic offered to support the analysis that steel is only 0.5dB behind copper, the poster stating: Continue reading Steel as an antenna radiator

A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF – comparison with Severns 2000

A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF described a simple analytical model. This article compares the results of that model with graphs published in (Severns 2000) and is of particular interest since Severns used an FEA based model.

Above is Fig 3A from Severns and is the current distribution at 1MHz for 20.3µm (0.0008″) cladding of a 0.405mm (#26) CCS (Copperweld) conductor. Continue reading A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF – comparison with Severns 2000

High and low Z responses of a resonant / antiresonant shorted / open transmission line section

At KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U I stated:

The technique he followed was to make a series of measurements of Rin at low Z resonances of the length of line with open circuit at the far end, and to calculate the MLL using Calculate transmission line Matched Line Loss from Rin of o/c or s/c resonant section.

Though the calculator can use high Z resonances, the high Z resonances are very narrow and it is very difficult to measure Rin at the true resonant frequency. So, only his reported low Z measurements will be used.

This article illustrates the response expected from a 13.7m length of Belden 8262 (RG58C/U). Continue reading High and low Z responses of a resonant / antiresonant shorted / open transmission line section

KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U

Shawn, KB1CKT, set about measuring the matched line (MLL) loss of a roll (~152.4m) RG6/U on the roll and published his results in an online discussion.

A word of warning: measuring on the roll can give unusual results if the cable is deformed significantly on the roll. A higher risk for foamed dielectric cables, and this is one of that type.

The technique he followed was to make a series of measurements of Rin at low Z resonances of the length of line with open circuit at the far end, and to calculate the MLL using Calculate transmission line Matched Line Loss from Rin of o/c or s/c resonant section.

Impedance measurements were made using a nanoVNA which was OSL calibrated in several ranges through the series of measurements. Also notable was that there were several coax adapters used to connect the RG6 to VNA.

Though the calculator can use high Z resonances, the high Z resonances are very narrow and it is very difficult to measure Rin at the true resonant frequency. So, only his reported low Z measurements will be used.

So. let’s graph the measured Rin at zero crossing of Xin.

The circled measurements appear out of line with the others. They were made with a different OSL calibration that the ones immediately below and above, so that hints something may have gone wrong in the calibration. Two of the possible explanations are: Continue reading KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U

Loss of ladder line: copper vs CCS (Seminole 1320 vs 1321) – KN5L’s measurements

John, KN5L, has published measurements made of two types of nominally 300Ω windowed ladder line. The measurements of such similar lines gives opportunity to explore the effect of conductor differences on matched line loss (MLL).

Above is an analysis of KN5L’s published measurements of a 19.93m test section of Seminole 1320 (nominal 300Ω windowed ladder line, 0.812mm (#20) 7 strand copper). The line was purchased around 2015. The plot has: Continue reading Loss of ladder line: copper vs CCS (Seminole 1320 vs 1321) – KN5L’s measurements