I have written several articles on untuned loops for receiving, as have others. A diversity of opinions abounds over several aspects, probably none more than the idea of an optimal load impedance for the loop.
This article analyses a simple untuned / unmatched loop in the context of a linear receive system (ie no IMD) of known Noise Figure. Continue reading Small untuned loop for receiving – simple model with transformer
At nanoVNA-H – Port 2 attenuator for improved Return Loss I explained the reasons for essentially permanent attachment of a 10dB attenuator to Port 2 (Ch 1 in nanoVNA speak).
Above, the 10dB attenuator is semi permanently attached to Port 2 principally to improve the Return Loss (or impedance match) of Port 2, a parameter that becomes quite important when testing some types of networks than depend on proper termination (eg many filters). I should remind readers that the improvement in Port 2 Return Loss comes at a cost, the dynamic range of Port 2 is reduced by 10dB. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – Port 1 attenuator for improved what???
Articles describing how to make a Return Loss Bridge are pretty common, but they don’t often spell out component values that are critical to accuracy.
Above is a schematic for discussion. It is somewhat simplified, but it is complete and will work. Continue reading Return Loss Bridge – some important details
A friend wrote saying “I thought the nanoVNA display was smaller than this”.
I make the index finger nail width exactly the same as the round part of the SMA nut which is 7.6mm. That is a very tiny hand… or the image is a composite fraudulently not to scale. Continue reading nanoVNA – promotion by cheats
There is little doubt that the nanoVNA has made VNAs very popular in the ham community, possibly more so that any other device.
Eager owners are trying to apply them to solve lots of problems, often without sufficient knowledge or experience to properly inform the measurements.
An example that has a appeared a few times on online forums in the last weeks is measuring the matched line loss (MLL) of a section of RG6 coax… to inform a decision to discard it or keep it.
The common approach is to use a measurement of |s11| and to calculate Return Loss and infer the MLL.
For discussion, lets consider an example of 30′ of Belden 1694A RG6 solved in Simsmith. We should note that unlike most RG6 in the market today, this uses a solid copper centre conductor.
Short circuit termination
Some authors insist that the half return loss method is to be performed using a short circuit test section. Bird does this in their Bird 43 manual.
Above is a plot of calculated |s11| (-ReturnLoss) from 1 to 20MHz for the test section. The three plots are of |s11| wrt 50Ω, 75Ω and frequency dependent actual Zo (as calculated for the model). The cursor shows that the actual |s11| is -0.37474dB (ReturnLoss=0.37474dB). Using the half return loss method MLL=ReturnLoss/2=0.37474=0.187dB/m. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – woolly thinking on MLL measurement
N0TZU recently report his perception that a length of Logico COX3520 RG6 Quad cable he purchased exhibited higher than expected Matched Line Loss (MLL) at 10MHz.
Most RG6 type cable sold these days at low cost uses a copper clad steel centre conductor, and much of it has insufficient copper cladding thickness for copper like performance at HF.
Above is a pic N0TZU gave of the centre conductor cross section. It is possible to measure the cladding thickness from the pic knowing that the overall diameter is 1.024mm. The copper thickness measured 13.7µm, lets round it to 14µm. Continue reading RG6 cladding thickness report
A question was asked in an online forum specific to nanoVNA as to how the use the nanoVNA to
check the attenuation loss in some old & weathered RG-6 (75 ohm) cables for the TV signal frequencies. Excuse the term
attenuation loss, lets assume the poster is asking for matched line loss (MLL).
The assembled experts are offering solutions to transform the ports to 75Ω and make a measurement, deducting the loss of the transformation (minimum loss pads were suggested).
There is a very simple solution that should be quite practical for the scenario described. Let’s work through two examples using 35.5m of unbranded quad shield RG6 with CCS centre conductor (of unknown quality) for the DUT. Continue reading nanoVNA-H – thinking laterally
I purchased some CH2 terminal blocks on eBay. They were advertised as 250V AC, 10A, to suit 2.5mm^2 conductors.
Above is the seller’s pic of the terminal block.
– Fast wiring
– Prevents the wire from shorting out
– Free drilling screws, increase the speed of assembly
– Can completely replace electrical tape
– Cost savings
– Fast、efficient and safe
– Widely used in the wire connection，especially for LED Lighting Ceiling
– lamp dedicated wiring clip.
– Material: PP Flame Retardant Plastic
– Reed material: Manganese Steel Sheet
– Color: White
– Voltage: 220V
– Current: 10A
– Type: 2Pin Connector
– Style:Self-locking Cable Connector
– Temperature: -40 to 150 Degrees Celsius
– Wiring: Wiring Capacity From 0.5-2.5 Square Wire
– Size: CH-2：Approx. 20*17.5*13.5mm
Close inspection cause me concern for their performance, there is no current rating marked. The product is labelled KX-P2 and appears to be a product of Foshan Shunde Kaixiang Electrical Co Ltd, but the Chinese being great copyists, this may have come from another source. Continue reading Chinese CH2 terminal block (CH1 CH3)
I purchased a kit to convert a oyster luminaire to single colour LED on eBay. The kit was nominally 18W, supplied with the 5730 LED plate and driver module for about $10 incl shipping.
A cautionary note: do not play with these things unless you have the necessary competencies.
The thing was packed in nothing more than a plastic mailing bag and was bent in several places in transit from China. It was not usable in that state and some LEDs were not working so my money was refunded in full (after the usual tug-o-war eventually resolved with eBay intervention). It had to be straightened to be usable, but at the risk of damaging LEDs and possibly cracking or compromising the insulation layer.
Above, after flattening the back plate, nearly half the LEDs are not working. Continue reading Conversion of oyster luminaire to LED
Users of some ATUs may have noticed particular sensitivity to hands on the capacitor adjustment knobs. It is a common problem with cheap implementations of the T match as the capacitor rotor is usually at high RF voltage and if that shaft is extended to the adjustment knob, under certain circumstances tuning becomes very sensitive to hands on the knobs.
In some of these implementations, if the users hand touches the metal grub screw in the knob, or the metal panel bushing behind the knob they may get a significant RF burn.
Let’s use the MFJ-949E as a discussion example. It is a T match, and the metal capacitor shafts in the knobs and panel bushings carry RF voltages.
So why is this only sometimes a problem?
The RF voltage across the coil, and impressed on the capacitor shafts can be extremely high when using loads with small resistance and large negative reactance, more so on the lower bands. Continue reading MFJ ATU hand effects on capacitor knobs