## NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 4

NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 3 visited the basic model of an inductor as comprising a series resistance and inductance, and its failure above perhaps SRF/5, and proposed a simple extension that may give useful prediction of impedance up to SRF and a little above.

Importantly though is that it showed that measurement of Z departed from a frequency independent inductance $$X \propto f$$ and some small frequency dependent resistance $$R \propto \sqrt f$$ above perhaps 15% of SRF… and so we cannot simply infer the value of the underlying inductance from Z at an arbitrary frequency.

Where $$X \propto f$$ we can say that $$L=\frac{X}{2 \pi f}$$ (where X is the imaginary part of measured Z).

Let’s return to the plot of L from NanoVNA-APP’s interpretation of measured Z. At lower frequencies where the plotted value of L is independent of frequency (ie a horizontal line) we can infer that the underlying inductance of the inductor is that value, 20µH in this case (an air cored solenoid). Continue reading NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 4

## NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 3

NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 2 showed how to approximately undo the transmission line effects of the measurement fixture to improve accuracy of measurement of the coil end to end.

Let’s look at the impedance plot at the coil ends. So, it is clear we have a device with multiple resonances… a resonator in broad terms and representing it as a fixed inductance in series with some small resistance is quite inadequate for the frequency range above. Continue reading NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 3

## NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 2

Recall the fixture from NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 1: In fact, we have the underlying inductor connected by 35mm of 570Ω two wire transmission line, so there is a small amount of impedance transformation (which could be approximately corrected in this case by setting port extension to 20ps… but that is not done for this article).

Let’s explore that using Simsmith. Continue reading NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 2

## NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge -part 1

Let’s explore measurement of a test inductor with the NanoVNA. Above is the test inductor, enamelled wire on an acrylic tube.

Let’s hook it up to the NanoVNA for an s11 reflection measurement of Z. Above, one wire is plugged into the centre pin of the top / Port 1 connector. The other wire is clamped to the external male threads of the Port 2 connector using a plastic clothes peg. Note that this VNA is modified, it has the two coax outers bonded together.

In fact, we have the underlying inductor connected by 35mm of 570Ω two wire transmission line, so there is a small amount of impedance transformation (which could be approximately corrected in this case by setting port extension to 20ps… but that is not done for this article).

An ideal inductor of 20µH would have zero resistance and reactance proportional to frequency.

Let’s look at measured impedance from 1-5MHz. My fork of NanoVNA-App will by used. Above, measured Z of this practical inductor looks a bit like that, very low R and X∝f. Above, we can plot the equivalent series inductance from the measurement, and it looks like 20µH independent of frequency.

That all looks pretty good… but let’s measure Z of this practical inductor from 1-200MHz. Above, this is nothing like zero resistance and reactance proportional to frequency.

What is going on?

Continued at NanoVNA-H4 – inductor challenge – part 2

## NanoVNA-App – driver for NanoVNA firmware updates 