Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer – discussion of ferrite material choice

At Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:200Ω I laid out a design using Fair-rite a #43 ferrite smallish binocular core. #43 is a medium permeability NiZn ferrite.

I have been asked by several correspondents why I used #43 when the consensus of online experts is that #75 is a clearly better choice for the application.

Let me say that almost all such articles and posts:

  • are absent any quantitative measurement of their proposed design;
  • they tend to use medium to large toroids; and
  • the few that expose their design calcs treat permeability as a real number that is independent of frequency.

#75 mix is a high permeability MnZn ferrite and subject to dimensional resonance in the frequency range of interest for this application, a problem exacerbated by using larger cores.

Permeability is a complex quantity that is frequency dependent and any analysis that pretends otherwise is not soundly based. Continue reading Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer – discussion of ferrite material choice

Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:200Ω

A simplified design for small broadband RF transformers using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use. The specific application is an impedance transformer for a nominally 200Ω antenna to a 50Ω receiver input. Intended frequency range is from 0.5 to 15MHz.

The characteristic of typical medium µ ferrite mixes, particularly NiZn, are well suited to this application.

This article continues with the design discussed at BN43-2402 balun example, but using a BN43-202 with 5t primary and 10t secondary for a nominal 1:4 50:200Ω transformer (though at high ratios, the transformation is only nominal).

Lets consider a couple of simple starting points for low end and high end rolloff. Continue reading Feasibility study – loop in ground for rx only on low HF – small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:200Ω

Online calculator of ferrite material permeability interpolations

Many of my articles call for finding the complex permeability of a ferrite components from manufacturer’s data.

Let’s explore an example used in a recent article, Another small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:450Ω.

The core used was a Fair-rite ferrite core of #43 material, and the magnetising impedance of a 5t winding needed to be found.

Above is a chart from Fair-rite’s catalog. Permeability is a complex quantity and is frequency dependent. One could scale from the graph, the values for µ’ and µ” at the frequency of interest. Continue reading Online calculator of ferrite material permeability interpolations

Another small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:450Ω

A simplified design for small broadband RF transformers using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use. The specific application is an impedance transformer for a nominally 450Ω antenna to a 50Ω receiver input. Intended frequency range is from 0.5 to 15MHz.

The characteristic of typical medium µ ferrite mixes, particularly NiZn, are well suited to this application.

This article continues with the design discussed at BN43-2402 balun example, but using a BN43-202 with 5t primary and 15t secondary for a nominal 1:9 50:450Ω transformer (though at high ratios, the transformation is only nominal).

Lets consider a couple of simple starting points for low end and high end rolloff. Continue reading Another small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:450Ω

Another small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:3200Ω

A simplified design for small broadband RF transformers using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use. The specific application is an input transformer to a nominally 2kΩ receiver at around 9MHz (a panadapter).

The characteristic of typical medium µ ferrite mixes, particularly NiZn, are well suited to this application.

This article continues with the design discussed at BN43-2402 balun example, but using a 2t primary and 16t secondary for a nominal 1:64 50:3400Ω transformer (though at high ratios, the transformation is only nominal).

Lets consider a couple of simple starting points for low end and high end rolloff. Continue reading Another small broadband RF transformer using medium µ ferrite core for receiving use – 50:3200Ω

Small efficient matching transformer for an EFHW

At FT82-43 matching transformer for an EFHW I wrote about the likely losses at 3.6MHz of a common design using a FT82-43 ferrite core with a 3t primary. In that case, expected efficiency (meaning PowerOut/PowerIn) of the transformer was less than 65% at 3.6MHz.

I have been offered input VSWR curves for such a configuration, and they are impressive… but VSWR curves do not address the question of loss / efficiency.

Note that building loss into antenna system components is a legitimate and common method of taming VSWR excursions, eg TTFD, CHA250, many EFHW transformers, but in some applications, users may prioritise radiated power over VSWR.

Design context / objectives

Objectives are:

  • used with a load such that the input impedance Zin is approximately 50+j0Ω, Gin=0.02S;
  • broadband operation from 3.5-30MHz;
  • VSWR < 2 with nominal 3200Ω load; and
  • transformer efficiency > 90% at 3.6MHz.

The following describes such a transformer using a Fair-rite 2643625002 core (16.25×7.29×14.3mm #43).

I mentioned in the reference article that the metric ΣA/l captures the geometry, the larger it is, the fewer turns for same inductance / impedance. ΣA/l for the chosen core is 3.5 times that of a FT82-43 yet it is only 1.6 times the mass.

The transformer is wound as an autotransformer, 3+21 turns, ie 1:8 turns ratio. Continue reading Small efficient matching transformer for an EFHW

FT82-43 matching transformer for an EFHW

A published design for an EFHW matching device from 80-10m uses the following circuit.

Like almost all such ‘designs’, they are published without supporting measurements or simulations.

The transformer is intended to be used with a load such that the input impedance Zin is approximately 50+j0Ω, Gin=0.02S.

Analysis of a simple model of the transformer with a load such that input impedance is 50+j0Ω gives insight into likely core losses.
Continue reading FT82-43 matching transformer for an EFHW

Surecom SW-102 VSWR meter review – v2.6

At Surecom SW-102 VSWR meter review I wrote a review of a meter which I had purchased a little over a year ago, it was at v4.5.

One of the many problems identified was inconsistency of displayed values.

v2.6

Surecom’s versions are confusing, the highest number is not necessarily the latest version. It appears a partial version history from their current page advertising the SW-102 is:

OLD VERSION : V3.3 ,V3.8 ,V4.5,V4.9 ,V5.0,V5.1
2017-8 NEW VERSION : V2.02 ,V2.03

The following image is from Surecom’s current page advertising the SW-102, and I assume that the version shown here (v2.6) is the latest at time of writing.

The image captures the outputs of two tests with poor and good dummy loads.

Let’s check the displayed values for internal consistency. Continue reading Surecom SW-102 VSWR meter review – v2.6

Finding velocity factor of coaxial transmission line using the velocity factor solver

This article is a tutorial in use of Velocity factor solver to find the velocity factor of a sample coaxial transmission line using an antenna analyser.

Example 1: Youkits FG-01

we have two lengths of H&S RG223 terminated in identical BNC connectors at both ends. Let’s connect each in turn to a Youkits FG-01 antenna analyser and find the quarter wave resonance of each (ie the lowest frequency at which measured X passes through zero).

Above, the line sections are connected to the Youkits, and the length overall is measured from the case of the analyser to the of the cable.
Continue reading Finding velocity factor of coaxial transmission line using the velocity factor solver

Finding velocity factor of coaxial transmission line – a challenge

An upcoming article works through an approach to finding the velocity factor of a sample of coaxial cable using an antenna analyser.

As a precursor, this article poses a challenge that will identify the issues relevant to the problem.

Case 1:

A Rigexpert has been used to measure the first quarter wave resonance of a length of ‘unknown’ semi air dielectric RG6.

The length of RG6 Dual Shield is terminated in an F connectors at one end, the other end cut cleanly square. It is connected via  N(M)-BNC(F) and BNC(M)-F(F) adapters to a Rigexpert AA-600 antenna analyser and the quarter wave resonance noted (ie the lowest frequency at which measured X passes through zero).

Above, the line section is connected to the Rigexpert via adapters, and the length overall is measured from the case of the AA-600 to the of the cable. The measured length is 1.077m, make any adjustment to that length that you think is justified on the information presented here.
Continue reading Finding velocity factor of coaxial transmission line – a challenge