144MHz beacon observation from Wellington NSW – 3 aircraft reflections

VK2TP at Wellington has been making observations of aircraft enhancement of the path between my 144MHz beacon and Wellington, an obstructed direct path of 259km. The beacon modulation pattern includes a long steady carrier which permits better observation of the nature of these aircraft enhanced paths. Continue reading 144MHz beacon observation from Wellington NSW – 3 aircraft reflections

Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation – nanoVNA

The article Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation ended with a comment on making the measurements with a nanoVNA.

This article reports measurements with a nanoVNA-H v3.3 (modified) calibrated and swept from 1-31MHz using nanovna_mod. Continue reading Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation – nanoVNA

Steel as an antenna radiator

One sees discussions online regarding the suitability of various conductor materials for antennas and feedlines.

A recent thread asked about steel as an antenna radiator and one response tried to answer the question using NEC models of a half wave 40m dipole.

Above is the graphic offered to support the analysis that steel is only 0.5dB behind copper, the poster stating: Continue reading Steel as an antenna radiator

Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation

Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U documented a simple and quick test of the matched line loss (MLL) of a roll of new RG11A/U just delivered. The test used is simple, and quite suited to the case where the far end of the cable is not accessible, eg buried inside the drum.

In this case, the far end of the cable was accessible and a series of measurements of impedance with a short and open termination could be made. This is a more comprehensive test, but involves more complicated calculations. Continue reading Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U – Zoc, Zsc based MLL calculation

Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U

I saw an eBay listing for 305m (1000′) rolls of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U which looked interesting, time for some due diligence.

Being a brand name product, specifications were probably available and indeed were quickly found.

The cable is a CCS RG11A/U (Zo=75Ω), and from the centre conductor DC resistance value (12.5Ω/305m) and 1.63mm (#14) size, it appeared likely that it was 21% IACS Copperweld, and that the cladding thickness should be 49µm. At that copper thickness, near copper like performance was likely down to perhaps 7MHz (where it is 2 skin depths thick).

A roll was ordered as it was likely to be quite usable cable and at $99 including shipping (~25kg) it should be good value. Continue reading Checkout of a roll of Commscope 4510404 CCS RG11A/U

A walkthrough of using a Rigexpert AA-600 to make a quick measurement of loss of a new roll of CCS RG11

The technique is to make a measurement near to the frequency of interest of Rin at resonance of the length of line with open circuit at the far end, and to calculate the matched line loss (MLL) using Calculate transmission line Matched Line Loss from Rin of o/c or s/c resonant section.

Let’s demonstrate the measurement of Rin of an o/c resonant section around the 160m band, which we will then use to calculate MLL.

Above, the AA-600 connected to the cable using a F(F)-N(M) adapter, the cable is 305m in length and the far end is open circuit. Continue reading A walkthrough of using a Rigexpert AA-600 to make a quick measurement of loss of a new roll of CCS RG11

A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF – comparison with Severns 2000

A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF described a simple analytical model. This article compares the results of that model with graphs published in (Severns 2000) and is of particular interest since Severns used an FEA based model.

Above is Fig 3A from Severns and is the current distribution at 1MHz for 20.3µm (0.0008″) cladding of a 0.405mm (#26) CCS (Copperweld) conductor. Continue reading A model of current distribution in copper clad steel conductors at RF – comparison with Severns 2000

High and low Z responses of a resonant / antiresonant shorted / open transmission line section

At KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U I stated:

The technique he followed was to make a series of measurements of Rin at low Z resonances of the length of line with open circuit at the far end, and to calculate the MLL using Calculate transmission line Matched Line Loss from Rin of o/c or s/c resonant section.

Though the calculator can use high Z resonances, the high Z resonances are very narrow and it is very difficult to measure Rin at the true resonant frequency. So, only his reported low Z measurements will be used.

This article illustrates the response expected from a 13.7m length of Belden 8262 (RG58C/U). Continue reading High and low Z responses of a resonant / antiresonant shorted / open transmission line section

KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U

Shawn, KB1CKT, set about measuring the matched line (MLL) loss of a roll (~152.4m) RG6/U on the roll and published his results in an online discussion.

A word of warning: measuring on the roll can give unusual results if the cable is deformed significantly on the roll. A higher risk for foamed dielectric cables, and this is one of that type.

The technique he followed was to make a series of measurements of Rin at low Z resonances of the length of line with open circuit at the far end, and to calculate the MLL using Calculate transmission line Matched Line Loss from Rin of o/c or s/c resonant section.

Impedance measurements were made using a nanoVNA which was OSL calibrated in several ranges through the series of measurements. Also notable was that there were several coax adapters used to connect the RG6 to VNA.

Though the calculator can use high Z resonances, the high Z resonances are very narrow and it is very difficult to measure Rin at the true resonant frequency. So, only his reported low Z measurements will be used.

So. let’s graph the measured Rin at zero crossing of Xin.

The circled measurements appear out of line with the others. They were made with a different OSL calibration that the ones immediately below and above, so that hints something may have gone wrong in the calibration. Two of the possible explanations are: Continue reading KB1CKT measurement of a roll of RG6/U

Loss of ladder line: copper vs CCS (Seminole 1320 vs 1321) – KN5L’s measurements

John, KN5L, has published measurements made of two types of nominally 300Ω windowed ladder line. The measurements of such similar lines gives opportunity to explore the effect of conductor differences on matched line loss (MLL).

Above is an analysis of KN5L’s published measurements of a 19.93m test section of Seminole 1320 (nominal 300Ω windowed ladder line, 0.812mm (#20) 7 strand copper). The line was purchased around 2015. The plot has: Continue reading Loss of ladder line: copper vs CCS (Seminole 1320 vs 1321) – KN5L’s measurements