This series of seven articles has:
- explained the meaning and value of G/T as a single metric for receive system performance;
- defined and explained the G and T terms;
- explained the relationship between Teq and Noise Figure;
- explained how to analyse simple cascaded stages and hence more complex networks;
- described how to estimate transceiver Noise Figure and Teq;
- demonstrated application of the analysis techniques to a set of practical configuration options to provided quantitative comparison of the S/N performance of the options; and
- discussed measurement of G/T as a means of validating system performance.
Measurement of G/T
G/T can be measured using celestial noise sources provided the antenna can be pointed to them. The noise source that is most appropriate will depend on expected G/T, frequency, time etc.
Bringing it all together
This part explains how to build a model of the entire receive system to calculate G/T.
Firstly, make an inventory of all of the system elements that you intend to model.
A model needs to be no more detailed than is necessary to provide adequate accuracy for the purpose at hand.
(Allison et al 2011) detail the method used by the ARRL in their test reports on equipment.
Effectively they calculate NF=-174+27-MDS where MDS is measured
in the CW mode using the 500 Hz, or closest available IF filter (or audio filters where IF filters are not available).!–more–>
One flaw in this method is that the factor 27dB in the NF formula implies that the
Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth (ERB) of the receiver when measuring MDS is exactly 500Hz. More correctly, the formula should be NF=-174+10*log(ERB)-MDS. The error could be significant, especially with the
closest available…rovision in the test requirement.
For example, above is the measured IF response of a TS-2000 set to 500Hz bandwidth. As filter responses go, it is very good, having quite a flat region, better than most crystal filters used for CW, but the ERB is actually 430Hz, that is 0.66dB less noise than a 500Hz ERB filter and any NF based on 500Hz is low by 0.66dB.
The red plot is that of an idealised filter of the same ERB.
A more fundamental flaw is uncertainty in measured MDS leads to a relatively large uncertainty in NF when NF is small. The test reports do not specify the uncertainty of MDS, it is unlikely (Duffy 2007), (Duffy 2007b) that with receiver bandwidth of 500Hz (as specified for the MDS test) and the HP339A instrument used, that uncertainty to 95% confidence level is as low as ±0.5dB probably closer to ±1dB. The method used is just not suitable to low noise receivers.
Giving NF rounded to 1dB is not very informative for receivers with NF below 5dB, and fairly useless at 2dB as in (Wilson 2012).
- Allison, B; Tracy, , M; Gruber, M. 2011. Test Procedures Manual Rev L. ARRL Newington.
- Duffy, O. 2007. Uncertainty of the noise sampling process. https://www.owenduffy.net/files/NoiseMeasurementUncertainty.pdf .
- ———. 2007b. Noise measurement uncertainty calculator. VK1OD.net (offline).
- ———. 2014. ARRL Test Procedures Manual (Rev L) – Noise Floor test. https://owenduffy.net/blog/?p=1165 (accessed 15/03/2014).
- Wilson, M. 2012 ICOM IC-9100
MF/HF/VHF/UHF Transceiver In QST Apr 2012.
Finding transceiver Teq
We have explained how to calculate Teq from Noise Figure, but most transceiver specifications do not give Teq or Noise Figure directly, in fact they don’t really contain sufficient information to reliably calculate Teq or Noise Figure.
Credible equipment reviews might provide an estimate of Noise Figure or Teq.
The best approach is to directly measure Noise Figure using a known noise generator and the Y Factor Method.
Relationship between Teq and Noise Figure
In the last part, the meaning of the equivalent noise temperature of an amplifier was given.
Whilst you will find that working in Teq has advantages for this analysis, amplifier specifications may not give Teq, but may give Noise Figure.
There is a risk of damage when flashing ESCs. It accrues from the fact that ESCs have a three-legged H bridge and if a high and low FET are turned on simultaneously, damaging currents may flow. In fact, this can be an issue if the FETs are on together for just microseconds on each PWM cycle. Loading the wrong hex module is a recipe for disaster, it may turn on FETs in an unexpected way.
So, for safety, the ESC should be powered from a current limited power supply during flashing and initial motor testing.
In a process of continuing development, this article describes a variation on the inexpensive current limiter for flashing and initial testing of ESCs – Mk I.
G/T is defined as the ratio of antenna gain to total equivalent noise temperature.
For clarity, lets define those terms.
Gain of an antenna is defined (IEEE 1983) as
the ratio of the radiation intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically. (Isotropically simply means equally in all directions.)
I have an IC2200H mounted on my operating table with 25mm clearance above the radio and ample room for convection currents to assist in heat removal. It is concerning that the case temperature reaches temperatures that are not safe to touch, temperatures in excess of 75° (55° above ambient) have been measured and that has not triggered the internal temperature protection… so it could get hotter still!
Whilst it might take a while for the radio to reach high temperatures, in the long term, it must dissipate around 139W when transmitting on HIGH power setting and at ambient temperatures as high as 35° in the shack. (Rated input is 15A at 13.6V for 65W out, leaving 139W of heat to be dissipated.)
This is one of those high power mobile radios that advertises no fan as an advantage, but it is clearly not up to the task!
The objective of this change is to keep the external parts below 60°, the (ASTM standard C1055 1999) 5 second human skin burn threshold.