The article End Fed Half Wave matching transformer – 80-20m laid out a design for a EFHW transformer based on the readily available FT240-43.
This article builds an NEC model for an EFHW antenna at 3.6MHz incorporating a realistic model of the above transformer.
NEC provides for a NT card characterising a two port network using Y parameters.
Y parameter model for the transformer
The Y parameter model is based on measured input impedance with port 2 open circuit, and short circuit, and the observed turns ratio.
Impedance was measured with the transformer at 3.6MHz using an AA-600.
Above, the calculated Y parameter model including a prototype NT card. This model captures the various loss components of the transformer, mainly magnetising loss, at 3.6MHz.
Note that the Y parameter model is frequency specific.
Above is a graphic showing the geometry of the NEC model. Essentially the feed point has about λ/10 ‘counterpoise’ at a height of 0.3m to the left of the feed point, and a wire sloping upwards at about 45° for the main antenna conductor.
Although the NT card is frequency specific to 3.6MHz, we get a fair idea of the VSWR response over a narrow frequency range. The minimum VSWR of 1.06 at 3.6MHz is correct.
Above is a summary of the NEC model. Network loss captures the loss in the transformer, and at 100W input the transformer loss is 9W. This is much better transformer efficiency than almost all of the published designs that I have reviewed.
Radiation efficiency is 39%, a combination of conductor loss, transformer loss and ground loss, mostly ground loss.
Above is the pattern, highest gain is at towards the zenith as can be expected of a low antenna. Maximum gain is about 1dBi.
Above, at lower elevation (30°) the pattern shows a little skew due to the sloping radiator.
If this looks like an improvised antenna that performs well, keep in mind that the top of the sloping wire is at 28m height.