# EFHW exploration – Part 2: practical examples of EFHW

EFHW exploration – Part 1: basic EFHW explored the basic half wave dipole driven by an integral source as a means of understanding that component of a bigger antenna system.

The EFHW can be deployed in a miriad of topologies, this article goes on to explore three popular practical means of feeding such a dipole.

The models are of the antenna system over average ground, and do not include conductive support structures (eg towers / masts), other conductors (power lines, antennas, conductors on or in buildings). Note that the model results apply to the exact scenarios, and extrapolation to other scenarios may introduce significant error.

## End Fed Zepp with current drive

A very old end fed antenna system is the End Fed Zepp. In this example, a half wave dipole at λ/4 height is driven with a λ/4 600Ω vertical feed line driven by a balanced current source (ie an effective current balun).

Above is a plot of the current magnitudes. The currents on the feed line conductor are almost exactly antiphase, and the plot of magnitude shows that they are equal at the bottom but not so at the top. The difference between the currents is the total common mode current, and it is maximum at the top and tapers down to zero at the bottom. Icm at the top is about one third of the current at the middle of the dipole.

End fed Zepp deals in more detail with the common mode current on the EFZ.

## Elevated 2/3 terminal matching device with coax to ground electrode

One manufacturer of a popular EFHW antenna system that uses a 2/3 terminal matching device recommends that where the fed end of the dipole is elevated, that the match device be installed there and that the coax be grounded where it reaches ground. In this model, a 2m driven ground electrode is used to ground the coax.

Above, the plot of current magnitudes shows substantial common mode current on the feed line, with a maximum at the lower end approximately the same as the current in the middle of the dipole.

The relatively high common mode current on the feed line, and particularly at lower height is a distinct disadvantage bring risk of higher rx noise and transmitter interference to nearby electronics. The magic of End Fed Half Waves (EFHW) gives further information on the common mode current in this configuration.

This antenna is advertised as “no counterpoise needed” by at least one seller, which questions the term “counterpoise”: https://owenduffy.net/files/Counterpoise.pdf.

## Elevated 2/3 terminal matching device with coax to ground electrode, dipole fed 0.05λ from end

One popular author recommends a “0.05λ counterpoise” as he calls it. Again a 2/3 terminal matching device is used the coax is grounded where it reaches ground. In this model, a 2m driven ground electrode is used to ground the coax. This is essentially the same as the previous model but with the dipole fed 0.05λ from end.

Above, the plot of current magnitudes shows substantial common mode current on the feed line, with a maximum at the lower end approximately the same as the current in the middle of the dipole.

The relatively high common mode current on the feed line, and particularly at lower height is a distinct disadvantage bring risk of higher rx noise and transmitter interference to nearby electronics.

This is almost the same as the previous model, the so-called “counterpoise” has done little for the relatively high common mode current.

## Conclusions

The three scenarios modelled are quite similar configurations, but the detail of the feed arrangement results in the first being significantly different to the later two.

The third model shows that the so-called “counterpoise” variation to the second model  has negligible effect, and questions the credibility of sources suggesting otherwise.

Relatively high feed line common mode current is a risk, again dependent on implementation.

The concept of a “no counterpoise” EFHW as commonly used is questionable.

Because of the sensitivity to implementation detail, the term End Fed Half Wave is not very descriptive.

You might like: more articles on EFHW.