Fox flasher MkII update 7/2019

Fox Flasher MkII and several follow on articles described an animal deterrent based on a Chinese 8051 architecture microcontroller, the STC15F104E.

This is an update after several years operation outside, and some in service modifications to improve performance.

ff201Above is the original basic schematic.

Above is the revised schematic. One only high current LED driver is shown, use as many as needed. The battery charger / protection module is based on TP4056 and DW01 chips and modules sell on eBay for $1 or so. Continue reading Fox flasher MkII update 7/2019

Basic programming jig for STC15F104E and STC15F204E chips

The STC15Fx chips use a simple TTL/CMOS async programming interface that is suited to the common USB-RS232(TTL) adapters, some of which are less than A$2 on eBay (CH341 chip).

Above, the completed adapter. DIP-28 are located carefully so that the pins 10-18 are in the socket, the same connections are used for both chip sizes for STC15F104E and STC15F204E. Continue reading Basic programming jig for STC15F104E and STC15F204E chips

From lossless transmission line to practical – Zo and γ

On the concept of that P=Pfwd-Prev discussed the expression for power at a point on a line in terms of the travelling wave voltage and current components.

The expansion of P=real((Vf+Vr)*conjugate(If+Ir)) gives rise to four terms.

This article looks at the components of that expansion for a mismatched line for a range of scenarios.

The scenarios

  • Lossless Line;
  • Distortionless Line; and
  • practical line.

We will override the imaginary part of Zo and the real part of γ (the complex propagation coefficient) to create those scenarios. The practical line is nominally 50Ω and has a load of 10+j0Ω, and models are at 100kHz.

Lossless Line

A Lossless Line is a special case of a Distortionless Line, we will deal with it first.

A Lossless Line has imaginary part of Zo equal to zero and the real part of γ equal to zero.

Above is a plot of the four components of power and their sum at distances along the line (+ve towards the load). Continue reading From lossless transmission line to practical – Zo and γ

SimSmith example of VSWR assessment

A reader of On the concept of that P=Pfwd-Prev asked if / how the scenario discussed could be modeled in SimSmith.

SimSmith uses different transmission line modelling to what was used in that article, but a SimSmith model of RG58A/U allows illustration of the principles and it will deliver similar results.

Let’s explore the voltage maximum and minimum nearest the load to show that VSWR calculated from the magnitude of reflection coefficient is pretty meaningless in this scenario.

Above is the basic model. I have created two line sections, one from the load to the first voltage maximum, and another to the first voltage minimum where I have placed the source. I have set Zo to the actual Zo of the line as calculated by SimSmith (56.952373-j8.8572664Ω), effZ as SimSmith calls it, so the Smith chart relates to the real transmission line. Continue reading SimSmith example of VSWR assessment

On the concept of that P=Pfwd-Prev

The article On negative VSWR – Return Loss implications raised the question of the validity of the concept of that P=Pfwd-Prev.

The Superposition Theorem is an important tool in linear circuit analysis, and is used to find the combined response of independent sources. Superposition applies to voltages and currents, but not power. Continue reading On the concept of that P=Pfwd-Prev

On negative VSWR – Return Loss implications

On negative VSWR (read it first) discussed the case of negative VSWR results from some calculating tools  and formulas, and more generally that simple formulas that depend on lossless line assumptions produce errors on practical lossy line scenarios.

Return Loss is defined as the ratio Pfwd/Prev, often given in dB.

Return Loss is usually calculated as 20*log(1/ρ), it yields negative calculated Return Loss for ρ>1. It would be a mistake to doctor the result to hide the negative return loss as it is a strong hint that the results may be invalid.

An important consideration here is the validity of the concept of Pfwd and Prev. Continue reading On negative VSWR – Return Loss implications

On negative VSWR – a worked example

On negative VSWR (read it first) discussed the case of negative VSWR results from some calculating tools  and formulas, and more generally that simple formulas that depend on lossless line assumptions produce errors on practical lossy line scenarios.

This article exposes an example at 100kHz where Zo=50.71-j8.35Ω and Zload=5+j50Ω.

If we were to use a probe to directly measure the magnitude of line voltage, we would expect the following.

Above, the standing wave plot. At first appearance it might look like a classic standing wave plot, but it is not… there is a tiny difference in the shape at the right hand side. Continue reading On negative VSWR – a worked example